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Charles Edwards

Charles Edwards

Professor; Food Scientist; WSU

Email: edwardsc@wsu.edu

Phone: (509) 335-6612
Office: FSHN 320

*Accepting graduate student applications

Research Interest

Our research focuses on problem alcoholic fermentations and spoilage microorganisms of concern to winemakers.

Problem alcoholic fermentations are those where utilization of fermentable sugars by wine yeast is slow and/or undesirable off-odors and flavors are produced. While it is well documented that a lack of available nitrogen in musts can be a problem in Washington state and elsewhere, little is known regarding the role of other nutrients such as vitamins. Our laboratory was first to document interrelationships between certain nutrients and available nitrogen that affect yeast growth and H2S production. We are continuing to study key nutrients in an effort to develop preventative strategies of management such reformulation of nutrient additives and new ways to prepare cultures.

Spoilage issues of concern to Washington State include Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), and more recently, Brettanomyces. Our laboratory yielded the first published report that Lactobacillus can inhibit wine yeast and therefore slow alcoholic fermentations. The bacterium was later identified as a novel species of Lactobacillus and named Lactobacillus kunkeei after Dr. Ralph E. Kunkee (UC Davis). Later, another novel species was isolated and named Lactobacillus nagelii in honor of Dr. Charles W. Nagel, (Washington State University). More recently, our laboratory has determined that Brettanomyces appears to enter a “viable-but-not-culturable” state as well as studying novel methods for microbial control.

Courses Currently Teaching

  • FS/Anim_Sci 405 Ciders and Other Fermented Foods (added)
  • FS 460: Food Chemistry (modified)
  • FS/VIT_ENOL 465/565: Wine Microbiology & Processing (modified)
  • FS/VIT_ENOL 466: Wine Microbiology & Processing lab (modified)
  • FS/VIT_ENOL 496: Internship in a Winery (modified)

Employment

1989-1992
Assistant Enologist/Extension Enology Specialist E-2, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (I.A.R.E.C.), Prosser, WA. Responsibilities include research (75%) and extension (25%).

1992-1995
Assistant Food Scientist/Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. Responsibilities include research (75%) and undergraduate/graduate teaching (25%). Elected to the Food Science Graduate Faculty in 1992.

2001-2002
Sabbatical leave, Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark.

2002-present
Food Scientist/Professor, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.

Selected Recent Refereed Professional Articles

  • Cartwright, Z.M. and C.G. Edwards. Efficacy of warmed wine against Brettanomyces bruxellensis present in oak barrel staves. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 71:249-255 (2020).

Schumaker, M.R., C. Diako, J.C. Castura, C.G. Edwards, and C.F. Ross. Influence of wine composition on consumer perception and acceptance of Brettanomyces metabolites using temporal check-all-that-apply methodology. Food Res. Int. 116: 963-972 (2019).

  • Aplin, J.A., K.P. White, and C.G. Edwards. Growth and metabolism of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from Washington state vineyards in media and high sugar grape musts. Food Microbiol. 77: 158-165 (2019).
  • Edwards, C.G. and Z.M. Cartwright. Application of heated water to reduce populations of Brettanomyces bruxellensis present in oak barrel staves. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 40: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21548/40-1-3008 (2019).
  • Wade, M.E., J.P. Osborne, and C.G. Edwards. Influence of must supplementation on growth of Pediococcus spp. after alcoholic fermentation. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 40: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21548/40-1-3163 (2019).
  • Beezer, R.P., D.S. Mattinson, J.K. Fellman, B.L. Ewing, and C.G. Edwards. Impacts of depectinization of pear juice on alcoholic fermentation and indole formation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 99: 5792-5798 (2019).
  • Xing, H. and C.G. Edwards. Hydrogen sulfide production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae UCD 522 in a synthetic grape juice medium deficient in vitamins B1 (thiamin) and/or B6 (pyridoxine). Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 69:379-384 (2019).
  • Edwards, C.G., and T.A. Oswald. Interactive effects between total SO2, ethanol, and storage temperature against Brettanomyces bruxellensis. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 66: 71-76 (2018).
  • Cartwright, Z.M., D.A. Glawe, and C.G. Edwards. Reduction of Brettanomyces bruxellensis populations from oak barrel staves using steam. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 69: 400-409 (2018).
  • Cartwright, Z.M., B.R. Bondada, and C.G. Edwards. Survival of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in grape pomace and reduction of populations by application of heat and sulphites. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 25: 109-115 (2018).
  • Oswald, T.A. and C.G. Edwards. Interactions between storage temperature and ethanol that affect growth of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in Merlot wine. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 68: 188-194 (2017).
  • Von Cosmos, N., B.A. Watson, J.K. Fellman, D.S. Mattinson, and C.G. Edwards. Characterization of Bacillus megaterium, B. pumilus, and Paenibacillus polymyxa isolated from a Pinot noir wine from Western Washington State. Food Microbiol. 67: 11-16 (2017).
  • Oswald, T.A. and C.G. Edwards. Interactions between storage temperature and ethanol that affect growth of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in Merlot wine. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 68: 188-194 (2017).
  • Von Cosmos, N., and C.G. Edwards. Use of nutritional requirements for Brettanomyces bruxellensis to limit infections in wine. Fermentation 2: 17; doi:10.3390/fermentation2030017 (2016).
  • Petrova*, B.. Z.M. Cartwright, and C.G. Edwards. Effectiveness of chitosan preparations against Brettanomyces bruxellensis grown in culture media and red wines. J. Int. Sci. Vigne Vin. 50: 49-57 (2016).
  • Strickland, M.T., L.M. Schopp, C.G. Edwards, and J.P. Osborne.. Impact of Pediococcus spp. on Pinot noir wine quality and growth of Brettanomyces. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 67: 188-198 (2016).
  • Zuehlke*, J.M., B.C. Childs*, and C.G. Edwards. 2015. Evaluation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to metabolize residual sugar present in partially–fermented red wines. Fermentation 1: 3-12.
  • Childs*, B.C. J.C. Bohlscheid and C.G. Edwards. 2015. Impact of available nitrogen and sugar concentration in musts on alcoholic fermentation and subsequent wine spoilage by Brettanomyces. Food Microbiol. 46: 604-609.
  • Zuehlke*, J.M., D.A. Glawe, and C.G. Edwards. 2015. Efficacy of dimethyl dicarbonate against yeasts associated with Washington State grapes and wines. J. Food Proc. Pres. 39: 1016-1026.
  • Schopp*, L.M., J. Lee, J.P. Osborne, S.C. Chescheir*, and C.G. Edwards. 2013. Metabolism of non-esterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids and esters in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61: 11610-11617.
  • Edwards, C.G. April 2013. Management of Brettanomyces or do we still have to burn down the winery? Wines & Vines 94: 78-80.
  • Zuehlke* J.M. and C.G. Edwards. 2013. Impact of sulfur dioxide and temperature on culturability and viability of Brettanomyces in wine. J. Food Prot. 76: 2024-2030.
  • Sturgeon*, J.Q., J.C. Bohlscheid, and C.G. Edwards. 2013. Effect of nitrogen source on yeast metabolism and H2S formation. J. Wine Res. 24: 182-194.
  • Umiker*, N.L., R. DeScenzo, J. Lee, and C.G. Edwards. 2013. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration. J. Food Proc. Pres. 37: 799-805.
  • Edwards, C.G. 2012. What I think Ralph Kunkee gave to us. Wines & Vines. 93(11): 114.
  • Bourret*, T.B., C.G. Edwards, T. Henick-Kling, and D.A. Glawe. 2012. Curvibasidium rogersii, a new yeast species in the Microbotryomycetes. N. Am. Fungi 7: 1-8.
  • Morneau*, A.D., J.M. Zuehlke*, and C.G. Edwards. 2011. Comparison of media formulations used to selectively cultivate Dekkera/Brettanomyces. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 53: 460-465.
  • Bohlscheid*, J.C., J.P. Osborne*, C.F. Ross, and C.G. Edwards. 2011. Interactive effects of selected nutrients and fermentation temperature on H2S production by wine strains of Saccharomyces. J. Food Qual. 34: 51-55.
  • Sanborn*, M.A., C.G. Edwards, and C.F. Ross. 2010. The impact of fining on the chemical and sensory properties of Washington State Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 61: 31-41.
  • Jensen*, S.L., N.L. Umiker*, N. Arneborg, and C.G. Edwards. 2009. Identification and characterization of Dekkerabruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guillermondii isolated from commercial red wines. Food Microbiol. 26: 915-921.
  • Hagen*, K.M., M. Keller, and C.G. Edwards. 2008. Survey of biotin, pantothenic acid, and assimilable nitrogen in wine grapes from the Pacific Northwest. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 59: 432-436.
  • Bohlscheid, J.C., G. Specht, A. Ortiz-Julien, J. Maloney, B. Bertheau, C.F. Ross, and C.G. Edwards. 2007. Application of a new yeast preparation for problem grape musts. J. Wine Res. 18: 173-185.
  • Osborne, J.P. and C.G. Edwards. 2007. Inhibition of malolactic fermentation by an antibacterial protein produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 118: 27-34.
  • Edwards C.G. and J.C. Bohlscheid. 2007. Impact of pantothenic acid addition on H2S production by Saccharomyces under fermentative conditions. Enz. Microbial Technol. 41 (1-2): 1-4.
  • Bohlscheid* J.C., J.K. Fellman, X.-D. Wang, D. Ansen*, and C.G. Edwards. 2007. The influence of nitrogen and biotin interactions on the performance of Saccharomyces in alcoholic fermentations. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102: 390-400).
  • Bohlscheid, J.C., J.K. Fellman, X.-D. Wang, D. Ansen, and C.G. Edwards. 2007. The influence of nitrogen and biotin interactions on the performance of Saccharomyces in alcoholic fermentations. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102: 390-400.
  • Clary, C., A. Gamache*, M. Cliff, J. Fellman, and C. Edwards. 2006. Flavor and aroma attributes of Riesling wines produced by freeze concentration and microwave vacuum dehydration. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 30: 393-406.
  • Osborne, J.P. and C.G. Edwards. 2006. The inhibition of malolactic fermentation by Saccharomyces during alcoholic fermentation under low and high nitrogen conditions. Aust. J. Wine Grape Res. 12: 69-78.
  • Bohlscheid, J.C, X.D. Wang, D.S. Mattinson, and C.G. Edwards. 2006. Comparison of headspace solid phase microextraction and XAD-2 methods to extract volatile compounds produced by Saccharomyces during wine fermentations. J. Food Qual. 29: 1-15.

Technical Books and Chapters

  • Bohlscheid, J.C. and C.G. Edwards. 2012. The importance of biotin and other key nutrients in alcoholic fermentations. In: Agricultural Research Updates. P. Gorawala and S. Mandhatri (Eds.). Nova Science Publishers Inc., Hauppage, NY 4: 77-111.
  • Zuehlke*, J., B. Petrova*, and C.G. Edwards. 2013. Advances in the control of wine spoilage by Zygosaccharomyces and Dekkera/Brettanomyces. In: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. Volume 4, pp. 57-78. Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA.
  • Fugelsang, K.C. and C.G. Edwards. 2007. Wine Microbiology: Practical Applications and Procedures. Second edition. Springer Science and Business Media, NY. ISBN 978-0-387-33341-0.
  • Edwards, C.G. 2005. Illustrated Guide to Microbes and Sediments in Wine, Beer, and Juice. WineBugs LLC, Pullman, WA. ISBN 978-0-9772522-0-6.

Teaching Activities

  • Chair/co-chair 31 graduate committees of M.S. and Ph.D. students.
  • FS/ANIM SCI 405 Ciders and Other Fermented Foods lecture/laboratory (2018-present)
  • FSHN 450/550 Food Fermentations lecture/laboratory (1993- 2001; odd numbered years)
  • FS 460 Food Chemistry lecture (1993-2000, 2002, 2004-2005, 2012-present)
  • FS 461 Food Chemistry laboratory (1993-2000, 2002, 2004-2005).
  • FS/VIT_ENOL 465/565 Wine Microbiology/Processing lecture (2004, 2006-present).
  • FS/VIT_ENOL 466 Wine Microbiology/Processing laboratory (2007-present).
  • FS/VIT_ENOL 496 Internship in a Winery (2007-present).

Awards and Honors

  • Best research paper in the field of enology (senior author) published in Vol. 41 of the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, American Society for Enology and Viticulture (1991).
  • Finalist for the R.M. Wade Award for Excellence in Teaching, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Washington State University (1996).
  • Graduate student oral paper, “Inhibition of malolactic fermentation by wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation” (authors: J.P. Osborne, J.C. Bohlscheid, and C.G. Edwards) placed 1st at the American Society for Enology and Viticulture Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, June 30 to July 2 (2004).
  • Graduate student poster paper, “Interactive Effects of nitrogen and biotin on yeast growth, fermentation rate and volatile production” (authors: J.C. Bohlscheid and C.G. Edwards) placed 1st at the American Society for Enology and Viticulture Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, June 30 to July 2 (2004).
  • Excellence in Research award (Outstanding Researcher). College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State University (2006).
  • Best written work in oenology (Prix de l’O.I.V.) for Wine Microbiology: Practical Applications and Procedures (authors: K.C. Fugelsang and C.G. Edwards), Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin, Paris, France (2007).

Professional and Honor Societies

American Society for Enology and Viticulture, American Society for Enology and Viticulture (Northwest Chapter), Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Tau Sigma, Sigma Xi.

Education

Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1989

M.S., Cornell University, 1985

B.S., Oregon State University, 1982

A.A., San Joaquin Delta College, 1980