Carolyn F. Ross, Ph.D.
Carolyn Hovde Bohach
OFFICE: FSHN 122
PHONE: (509) 335-2438
FAX: (509) 335-4815
Accepting graduate student applications.
The overall objective of my research and graduate education program is to understand the theoretical basis underpinning the sensory perception (aural, oral, and tactile) of foods and wines and to correlate these psychophysical attributes with quantifiable characteristics. This research is focused in three major areas: 1) the influence of agronomic and environmental conditions on the chemical and sensory profiles of foods and wines; 2) the application of innovative analytical and sensory techniques to increase understanding of fundamental physical and chemical properties of food and wine quality; and 3) the enhancement of food quality through studies of consumer perception.
My research combines sensory analysis with analytical chemistry techniques to identify and describe changes in flavour and odour profiles. In both red and white wine, past research has focused on the perception of aroma and flavour compounds and how the perception of these compounds, along with taste compounds, varies with the composition of the wine (for example, differences in alcohol or tannin concentrations). We have also conducted extensive research into red and white wine finish, including the identification of specific compounds that contribute to finish, how the finish of the wine varies with the composition of the wine and the perception of finish by consumers. Sparkling wine has also provided another avenue of research, examining the influence of processing decisions on the final quality of the wine. Within this sparkling wine research, carbonation has become an area of interest, with studies pursuing its perception and changing temporal qualities. Other research projects have included the study of effectiveness of different palate cleansers, the effect of serving temperature on sensory perception in red and white wine and the examination of off-odours.
In food, my research examines changes in flavour and odour profiles, and the relationship between sensory data and chemical data. Past research has addressed environmental impacts, including the effect of pest pressure and integrated pest management strategies, on fruit quality particularly for grapes. A new research project, in collaboration with engineers and plant breeders, is determining the effects of long-term ozone exposure on the nutritional composition, post-harvest handling, and processing techniques for lentils that could increase the bioavailability of protein in lentils, thus increasing food value. This work could have implications for food security worldwide, particularly in South Asia where lentils are one of the most important sources of dietary protein. This research will also evaluate changes that might be necessary for industrial processing and consumer preparation. My team is currently developing foods with modified texture for people with texture sensitivities resulting from illness or disability. Texture-sensitive individuals, particularly children, often do not receive adequate nutrition because they are physically unable to masticate or swallow food because of associated pain. Other past research projects include studying changes in sensory profiles of foods as a result of advanced processing techniques, and the interaction of flavours and aromas with packaging material.
- FS 422/522: Sensory Evaluation of Food and Wine (Spring semester) This course provides an introduction to the theory, principles and applications of sensory evaluation techniques for the evaluation of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of foods and wine. Students will learn the basic psychological and physiological processes underlying sensory analysis, sensory testing methodologies and the basic principles of flavor perception and chemistry.
- FS 423: Sensory Evaluation of Food and Wine Laboratory (Spring semester) Practical application of FS 422 including theory, principles and application of sensory evaluation techniques for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of foods and wine.
- FS 461: Food Chemistry Laboratory (Fall semester). Experiments related to the properties, reactions and interactions of chemical components of foods.
For descriptions of the courses, see Courses page.
|2003||Certificate in University Teaching||Department of Teaching Resources and Continuing Education, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON|
|1998-2001||Doctorate of Philosophy
in Food Science /
|Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI|
|1995-1997||Master of Science
in Food Science
|Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON|
|1991-1995||Bachelor of Human Ecology
in Foods and Nutrition
|Department of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB|
|2010- present||Associate Professor, Washington State University, School of Food Science, Pullman, WA|
|2011||Visiting Researcher, Lincoln University, New Zealand|
|2004- present||Assistant Professor, Washington State University , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Pullman , WA|
|2004||Post-Doctoral Fellow, Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University , St. Catharines, ON|
|2003||Director of Research, DeltaNu, Laramie, WY|
|2003||Post-Doctoral Fellow and Laboratory Manager of InFARel (Industrially Focused Analytical Research Laboratory), Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON|
|2002-2003||Post-Doctoral Fellow, Georgia Institute of Technology Research Institute, Food Processing Technology Division, Atlanta, GA|
Current Research Activities
|2007-||Sensory Profiles and Consumer Acceptance of Advanced Apple Breeding Selections. Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission|
|2006-||Impact of fining on the sensory and chemical properties of white wine,
Washington Wine-Grape Funds
|2006-||Impact of Multicolored Asian Ladybeetle on the Quality of Concord Grape Juice, Washington State Concord Grape Research Council|
|2006-||Learning about applications of novel analytical chemistry techniques to sensory evaluation, WSU New Faculty Seed Grant|
|2005-||Assessment of astringency in Washington State wines using sensory and chemical methods, Washington Wine-Grape Funds|
|2005-||Estimating apple firmness using tensile mechanical properties,
Washington State Tree Fruit Research Council
73) Diako, C. †, McMahon, K.M., Mattinson, D.S., Evans, M.A. and Ross, C.F.* 2016. Alcohol, tannins and mannoprotein and their interactions influence the sensory properties of commercial Merlot wines: A preliminary study. Journal of Food Science. 81: S2039-S2048. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13389
72) Castura, J., Baker, A.K. and Ross, C.F. 2016. Using contrails and animated sequences to visualize uncertainty in dynamic sensory profiles obtained from temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA) data. Food Quality and Preference. 54: 90-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.06.011
71) Baker, A.K., Castura, J.C. and Ross, C.F.* 2016. Temporal check-all-that-apply characterization of red wine finish. Journal of Food Science. 81: S1521-S1529. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13328
70) Craft, C., Ross, C.F., Sealey, W., Gaylord, G., Barrows, F. and Fornshell, G. and Myrick, C. 2016. Growth, proximate composition, and sensory characteristics of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss consuming alternative proteins. Aquaculture. 459: 223-231. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.039
69) Shiroodi, S.G., Ovissipour, M., Ross, C.F. and Rasco, B. A*. 2015. Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water as a pretreatment method for reducing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in cold-smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Food Control. 60: 401-407. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.020
68) Tozer, P.*, Galinato, S.P., Ross, C.F., Miles, C.A. and McCluskey, J. 2015. Sensory analysis and willingness to pay for craft cider. Journal of Wine Economics. 10: 314-328. doi:10.1017/jwe.2015.30
67) Ovissipour, M., Al-Qadiri, H., Lu, X., Hu, Y., Ross, C.F., Van Eenennaam, J.P. Doroshov, S and Rasco, B.R.* 2015. The effect of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ovarian fat deposition on caviar yield and nutritional quality: introducing image processing method for sturgeon ovary fat determination. International Aquatic Research. DOI 10.1007/s40071-015-0111-0.
66) Castro, L.F. †, Vixie, K. and Ross, C.F.* 2015. Optimization of a solid phase dynamic extraction (SPDE) method for beer volatile profiling. Food Analytical Methods. DOI 10/1007/s12161-015-0104-z.
64) Betiku, O.C., Barrows, F., Ross, C.F. and Sealey, W.M.* 2015. The effect of total replacement of fish oil with DHA-Gold® and plant oils on growth and fillet quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet. Aquaculture Nutrition. DOI: 10.1111/anu.12234.
63) Castro, L.F. † and Ross, C.F.* 2015. Determination of flavor compounds in beer using stir bar sorptive extraction and solid-phase microextraction. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 121-125.
62) Baker, A.K.†, Vixie, B., Rasco, B., Ovissipour, M. and Ross, C.F.* 2014. Development of lexicon for caviar and its usefulness for determining consumer preferences. Journal of Food Science. 79: S2533-S2541.
– Featured research in Food Technology “news”. 2015. 1: 10.
61) Waldrop, M.E. † and Ross, C.F.* 2014. Sweetener blend optimization using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue. Journal of Food Science. 79: S1782-94.
60) Baker, A.K. † and Ross, C.F.* 2014. Wine finish in red wine: the effect of ethanol and tannin concentration. Food Quality and Preference. 38: 65-74.
59) Baker, A.K. † and Ross, C.F.* 2014. Sensory evaluation of impact of wine matrix on red wine finish: A preliminary study. Journal of Sensory Studies. 29: 139-148.
58) Goodstein, E.S. †, Bohlscheid, J.C., Evans, M. and Ross, C.F.* 2014. Perception of flavor finish in white wine: A time-intensity study. Food Quality and Preference. 36: 50-60.
57) Ross, C.F.*, Secor, A.C., Castro, L. and Harrison, R. 2014. Sensory threshold and consumer rejection of 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) by wine consumers in New Zealand and United States. 2014. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 20: 335-339.
56) Pula, K.*, Parks, C.D. and Ross, C.F. 2014. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience and familiarity. Appetite. 78: 15-22.
55) Gabrielyan, G., McCluskey, J.*, Marsh, T. and Ross, C.F. 2014. Willingness to pay for sensory attributes in beer. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. 43: 125-139.
54) Syamaladevi, R., Lupien, S.L., Bhunia, K., Sablani, S., Dugan, F., Rasco, B.*, Killinger, K., Dhingra, A., and Ross, C.F. 2014. UV-C light inactivation kinetics of Penicillium expansum on pear surfaces: Influence on physicochemical and sensory quality during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 87: 27-32.
53) Villamor, R. R.†, Evans, M.A., and Ross, C.F.* 2013. Ethanol, tannin and fructose concentration effects on sensory properties of model red wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 64: 342-348.
52) Castro, L.M. † and Ross, C.F.* 2013. The effect of protein and carbohydrate levels on the chemical and sensory properties of beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 71: 186-192.
– American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC) Editor’s Pick for Research and Trends on the ASBC monthly newsletter (the ‘Buzz’)
51) Villamor, R. R.†, Daniels, C.H., Moore, P.P. and Ross, C.F.* 2013. Preference mapping of frozen and fresh raspberries. Journal of Food Science. 78: S911-S919.
50) Kaspar, K.L., Park, J.S., Brown, C. R., Weller, K., Ross, C.F., Mathison, B. D., and Chew, B. P.* 2013. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Food and Nutrition Sciences. 4: 77-78.
49) Villamor, R. R.†, Evans, M.A., Mattinson, D.S. and Ross, C.F.* 2013. Effects of ethanol, tannin and fructose on the headspace concentration and potential sensory significance of odorants in a model wine. Food Research International. 50: 38-45.
48) Ross, C.F.*, Weller, K. and Alldredge, J.R. 2012. Impact of serving temperature on sensory properties of red wine as evaluated using projective mapping by a trained panel. Journal of Sensory Studies. 27: 463-470.
47) Castro, L.M. † and Ross, C.F.* 2012. Removal of volatiles from beer by gas (N2) stripping coupled with high-vacuum. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 70: 137-141.
– American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC) Editor’s Pick for Research and Trends on the ASBC monthly newsletter (the ‘Buzz’)
46) Evans, K.M.*, Barritt, B.H., Konishi, B.S., Brutcher, L.J. and Ross, C.F. 2012. WA 38’ Apple. HortScience. 47: 1177-1179.
45) Holmquist, C., McCluskey, J.J.* and Ross, C.F. 2012. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for oak attributes in Washington Chardonnays. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 94: 556-561.
44) Rosales Soto, M.U., Brown, K. and Ross, C.F.* 2012. Antioxidant activity and consumer acceptance of grape seed flour-containing food products. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 47: 592-602.
43) Lu, X., Ross, C.F., Powers, J.P. and Rasco. B.* 2011. Determination of quercetin in onion (Allium cepa) using infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59: 6376-6382.
42) Hoye, C.J.† and Ross, C.F.* 2011. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour. Journal of Food Science. 76(7): S428-436.
41) Ross, C.F.*, Hoye, C.J.† and Fernandez-Plotka, C.V. 2011. Influence of heating on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seed flour. 2011. Journal of Food Science. 76(6): C884-C890.
40) Lu, X., Ross, C.F., Powers, J., Tang, J., Aston, E. and Rasco, B.* 2011. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by ATR-FTIR. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59: 5215-5221.
39) Lu, X., Wang, J., Al-Qadiri, H., Ross, C.F., Powers, J., Tang, J. and Rasco, B.* 2011. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of onion (Allium cepa) and Shallot (Allium oschaninii) using infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. 129: 637-644.
38) Sealey, W.*, Gaylord, G., Barrows, F., Tomberlin, J., McGuire, M., Ross, C.F. and St-Hilaire, S. 2011. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 42: 34-35.
37) Bohlscheid, J.C., Osborne, J.P., Ross, C.F. and Edwards, C.G.* 2011. Interactive effects of selected nutrients and fermentation temperature on H2S production by wine strains of Saccharomyces. Journal of Food Quality. 34: 51-55.
36) Stone, D.A., Oliveira, A.C., Ross, C.F., Plante, S., Smiley, S. Bechtel, P and Hardy, R.W.* 2011. The effects of phase-feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with canola oil and Alaskan pollock fish oil on fillet fatty acid composition and sensory attributes. Aquaculture Nutrition. 17(2): e521-529.
35) Ou, Changrong., Du, X., Shellie, K. and Ross, C.F. and Qian, M.C.* 2010. Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(24): 12890–12898.
34) Reganold, J.P.*, Andrews, P.K., Reeves, J.R., Carpenter-Boggs, L., Schadt, C.W., Alldredge, J.R., Ross, C.F., Davies, N.M. and Zhou, J. 2010. Fruit and soil quality of organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems. PLoS One. 5 (9).
33) Sanborn, M.A.†, Edwards, C.G. and Ross, C.F.* 2010. The impact of fining on the chemical and sensory properties of Washington State Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 61: 31-41.
32) Ross, C.F.*, Rosales, M. and Plotka, V. 2010. Aroma profile of Niagara grape juice contaminated with multi-colored Asian ladybeetle taint using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC/MS/O). International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 45: 789-793.
31) Chauhan, J.M., Lim, S.Y., Powers, J.R., Ross, C.F. and Clark, S.* 2010. Low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science. 93: 1452-1458.
30) Chauvin, M.†, Ross, C.F.*, Pitts, M., Kupferman, E. and Swanson, B. 2010. Relationship between instrumental and sensory determination of apple and pear texture. Journal of Food Quality. 33 (2): 181-198.
29) Weekes, L.N. †, Walsh, D., Ferguson, H. and Ross, C.F.* 2010. Impact of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles on the sensory properties of Concord and Niagara grape juice. Journal of Food Science. 75: S68-S73.
28) Ross, C.F.*, Chauvin, M.A. † and Whiting, M. 2010. Assignation of sweet cherry selections to three taste groupings based on perceived sweetness and sourness. Journal of Food Science. 75: S48-S54.
27) Ross, C.F.*, Weller, K.M., Blue, R.B. and Reganold, J.P. 2009. Difference testing of Merlot produced from biodynamically and organically grown winegrapes. Journal of Wine Research. 2: 85-94.
26) Villamor, R. R.†, Harbertson, J.F. and Ross, C.F. * 2009. Influence of tannin concentration, storage temperature and time on the chemical and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 60: 442-449.
25) Harbertson, J.F.*, Mireles, M., Harwood, E., Weller, K. and Ross, C.F. 2009. Chemical and sensory effects of saignée, water addition and extended maceration on high brix must. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 60: 442-449.
– Recipient of American Journal of Enology and Viticulture Best Enology Paper Award (2009)
24) Chauvin, M.A. †, Whiting, M.D. and Ross, C.F.* 2009. The influence of harvest time on sensory properties and consumer acceptance of sweet cherries. HortTechnology. 19: 748-754.
– Most cited article in the journal in October 2009
23) Ross, C.F.*, Chauvin, M.A. † and Whiting, M. 2009. Firmness evaluation of sweet cherries by a trained and consumer sensory panel. Journal of Texture Studies. 40: 554-570.
22) Yang, N., McCluskey, J.* and Ross, C.F. 2009. Willingness to pay for sensory properties in Washington State red wines. Journal of Wine Economics. 4: 1-14.
21) Padiernos, C.A, Lim, S.Y., Swanson, B. G., Ross, C.F. and Clark, S.* 2009. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentration for use in lowfat whipping cream improves foaming properties. Journal of Dairy Science. 92: 3049-3056.
20) Chauvin, M.A.†, Parks, C., Ross, C.F.* and Swanson, B.G. 2009. Multidimensional representation of the standards scales of food texture. Journal of Sensory Studies. 24: 93-110.
19) Ross, C.F.* and Weller, K. 2008. Development of a low-alcohol drink similar in sensory properties to a full-alcohol drink. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 52: 37-45.
18) Chauvin, M.†, Ross, C.F.*, Younce, F. and Swanson, B. 2008. Standard scales for crispness, crackliness and crunchiness in dry and wet foods: Relationship with acoustical determination. Journal of Texture Studies. 39: 345-368.
17) Ross, C. F.*, Bohlscheid, J. and Weller, K. 2008. Influence of visual masking technique on the assessment of two red wines by trained and consumer assessors. Journal of Food Science. 73: S279-S285.
16) Ross, C.F.* and Weller, K. Effect of serving temperature on sensory attributes of red and white wines. 2008. Journal of Sensory Studies. 23: 398-416.
15) Landon, J.L.†, Weller, K., Harbertson, J. and Ross, C.F.* 2008. Chemical and sensory evaluation of astringency in Washington State red wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 59: 153-158.
14) Harbertson, J.F.*, Hodgins, R.E., Thurston, L.M. Schaffer, L., Reid, M., Landon, J., Ross, C.F. and Adams, D.O. 2008. Variability of tannin concentration in red wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 59: 210-214.
13) Nelson, M.L.*, Busboom, J.R., Ross, C.F. and Fallon, J. 2008. Effects of supplemental fat on growth performance and quality of beef from steers fed corn finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science. 86: 936-948.
12) Lim, S.Y., Swanson, B.G., Ross, C.F. and Clark, S.* 2008. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream. Journal of Dairy Science. 91: 1308-1316.
11) Ross, C.F.* and Weller, K. 2007. Sensory evaluation of suspected Harmonia axyridis-tainted red wine using untrained panelists. Journal of Wine Research. 18: 187-193.
10) Bohlscheid, J., Specht, G., Ortiz-Julien, A., Maloney, J, Maloney, J, Gore, D., Ross, C.F. and Edwards, C.G.* 2007. Application of a new yeast preparation for problem grape musts. Journal of Wine Research. 18, 173-185.
9) Ross, C.F.*, Ferguson, H., Keller, M., Walsh, D., Weller, K. and Spayd, S. 2007. Determination of ortho-nasal aroma threshold for multicolored Asian lady beetle in a concord grape juice. Journal of Food Quality. 30: 855-863.
8) Ross, C.F.*, Hinken, C. and Weller, K. 2007. Efficacy of palate cleansers for reduction of astringency carry-over during repeated ingestions of red wine. Journal of Sensory Studies. 22: 293-312.
7) Ross, C.F.*, Pecka, Kristin and Weller, Karen. 2006. Effect of storage conditions on the sensory quality of ground coffee. Journal of Food Quality. 29: 596-606.
6) Goodridge‡, C.F.*, Beaudry, R.M., Pestka, J.J. and Smith, D.M. 2003. Solid-phase microextraction for the measurement of hexanal in chicken myofibrils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 4185-4190.
5) Goodridge‡, C.F.*, Goodridge, L., Gottfried, D., Edmonds, P. and Wyvill, C. 2003. A rapid MPN-based ELISA for the detection of Salmonella typhimuirum in poultry waste water. Journal of Food Protection. 66: 2302-2306.
4) Goodridge‡, C.F.*, Beaudry, R.M., Pestka, J.J. and Smith, D.M. 2003. ELISA for monitoring lipid oxidation in chicken myofibrils through the quantification of hexanal-protein adducts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 7533-7539.
3) Forney, L.,* Goodridge‡, C.F., and Pierson, J. 2003. Ultraviolet disinfection: Similitude in Taylor-Couette and channel flow. Environmental Science and Technology. 37: 5015-5020.
2) Goodridge, L.D., Goodridge‡, C.F., Wu, J., Griffiths, M.W. and Pawliszyn, J.* 2003. Isoelectric point determination of norovirus-like particles by capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection. Analytical Chemistry. 76: 48-52.
1) Xiong, G., Goodridge‡, C.F., Wang, L., Chen, Y. and Pawliszyn, J.* 2003. Microwave-assisted headspace solid phase microextraction for the analysis of bio-emissions from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 7841-7847.
* Senior and corresponding author
† Graduate student supervised
‡ Goodridge is the former surname of Carolyn Ross
Review Articles (Refereed):
3) Villamor, R. R.† and Ross, C.F.* 2013. Wine matrix compounds affect perception of wine aromas. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 4: 1-20.
2) Ross, C.F.* 2009. Sensory science at the human-machine interface. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 20: 63-72.
1) Ross, C.F.* and Smith, D.M. 2006. Use of volatiles as indicators of lipid oxidation in muscle foods. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 5: 18-25.
Book Chapters (Refereed):
- Ross, C.F. Headspace Analysis. 2011. In Sampling and Sample Preparation. Lord, H. and Pawliszyn, J., Eds. Elsevier.
- Ross, C.F and Hoye, C.J. Breakage and Mastication of Solid Foods. 2011. In Food Oral Processing. Chen, J. and Engeln, L., Eds. London, Blackwell.
- Ross, C.F. Physiology of Sensory Perception. 2008. In The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products, Second Edition. Clark, S., Drake, Costello, M. and Bodyfelt, C., Eds. New York, NY, Springer.
- Ross, C.F. and Pawliszyn, J. 2005. Solid-phase microextraction. In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition. Worsfold, P., Townshend, A. and Poole, C., Eds. Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, Vol. 2, p. 608- 616.
- Ross, C.F. and Carron, K.T. 2005. Raman spectroscopy: Near-infrared. In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition. Worsfold, P., Townshend, A. and Poole, C., Eds. Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, Vol. 8, p. 105-110.