School of Food Science

Carolyn F. Ross, Ph.D.



Barbara Rasco
Interim Director

Carolyn Hovde Bohach
Boon Chew

Jeff Culbertson
Charlie Edwards
Girish Ganjyal
James Harbertson
Thomas Henick-Kling
Helen Joyner
Karen Killinger
Jeff Kronenberg
Scott Minnich
Greg Möller
Giuliana Noratto
Andrzej Paszczynski
Carolyn Ross
Dojin Ryu
Denise Smith
Gülhan Ünlü
Mei-Jun Zhu

Associate Professor



PHONE: (509) 335-2438
FAX: (509) 335-4815


Sensory Evaluation Facility

Accepting graduate student applications.

Research Interest

The research in our laboratory combines sensory evaluation with analytical chemistry techniques to identify and describes changes in foods and wines.  As the importance of sensory properties to food/beverage acceptance and enjoyment is critical, we look at all sensory dimensions of foods and beverages, including aromas, flavors, tastes, texture and sound.  For each of these sensory properties we then apply the appropriate analytical chemistry techniques for meaningful measurements and quantification.

Projects within the lab have included the description of changes in flavour and odour profiles of foods and wine.  In wine and beer, we are particularly interested in studying the interactions between volatile aroma and flavour compounds with the other non-volatile components in the product and how this affects the sensory properties of that product.   Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and olfactometry are used to identify and quantify the effects of changing matrix components on the chemical profile while trained sensory evaluation panels profile the products.   Through this research, we have determined that matrix components do indeed impact flavor and aroma compound detection.  We have also explored food texture and acoustical measurement of foods using sensory and analytical techniques.  Other projects have explored naturally occurring antioxidants and their application in creating functional foods.  We have also started to explore collaborations with other researchers working in the field of sustainability.

Courses Taught

  • FS 422/522: Sensory Evaluation of Food and Wine

For descriptions of the courses, see Courses page.


2003 Certificate in University Teaching Department of Teaching Resources and Continuing Education, University
of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
2001 Doctorate of Philosophy
in Food Science / Environmental Toxicology
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
1997 Master of Science
in Food Science
Department of Food Science,
University of Guelph, Guelph, ON
1995 Bachelor of Human Ecology
in Foods and Nutrition
Department of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB

Professional Experience

2010- present Associate Professor, Washington State University, School of Food Science, Pullman, WA
2004 – 2010 Assistant Professor, Washington State University, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Pullman, WA
2004 Post-doctoral Fellow, Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON
2003 Director of Research, CC Technology, Laramie, WY
2003 Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
2003 Laboratory Manager, Industrially Focused Analytical Research Laboratory, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
2002 Post-doctoral Fellow, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Food Processing Technology Division, Atlanta, GA

Current Research Activities

2007- Sensory Profiles and Consumer Acceptance of Advanced Apple Breeding Selections.  Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission
2006- Impact of fining on the sensory and chemical properties of white wine,
Washington Wine-Grape Funds
2006- Impact of Multicolored Asian Ladybeetle on the Quality of Concord Grape Juice, Washington State Concord Grape Research Council
2006- Learning about applications of novel analytical chemistry techniques to sensory evaluation, WSU New Faculty Seed Grant
2005- Assessment of astringency in Washington State wines using sensory and chemical methods, Washington Wine-Grape Funds
2005- Estimating apple firmness using tensile mechanical properties,
Washington State Tree Fruit Research Council


  • Holmquist, C., McCluskey, J.J. and Ross, C.F.  2012. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for oak attributes in Washington Chardonnays.  American Journal of Agricultural Economics.  94: 556-561.
  • Rosales Soto, M.U., Brown, K. and Ross, C.F.* 2012.  Antioxidant activity and consumer acceptance of grape seed flour-containing food products.  International Journal of Food Science and Technology.  47: 592-602.
  • Lu, X., Ross, C.F., Powers, J.P. and Rasco. B.*  2011.  Determination of quercetin in onion (Allium cepa) using infrared spectroscopy.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  59: 6376-6382.
  • Hoye, C.J. † and Ross, C.F.*  2011.  Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour.  Journal of Food Science.  76(7): S428-436.
  • Ross, C.F.*, Hoye, C.J. † and Fernandez-Plotka, C.V.  2011.  Influence of heating on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seed flour.  2011.  Journal of Food Science.  76(6): C884-C890.
  • Lu, X., Ross, C.F., Powers, J., Tang, J., Aston, E. and Rasco, B.*  2011.  Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by ATR-FTIR.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  59: 5215-5221.
  • Lu, X., Wang, J., Al-Qadiri, H., Ross, C.F., Powers, J., Tang, J. and Rasco, B.*  2011.  Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of onion (Allium cepa) and Shallot (Allium oschaninii) using infrared spectroscopy.  Food Chemistry.  129: 637-644.
  • Sealey, W.*, Gaylord, G., Barrows, F., Tomberlin, J., McGuire, M., Ross, C.F. and St-Hilaire, S.  2011.  Sensory analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens.  Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.  42: 34-35.
  • Bohlscheid, J.C., Osborne, J.P., Ross, C.F. and Edwards, C.G.*  2011.  Interactive effects of selected nutrients and fermentation temperature on H2S production by wine strains of Saccharomyces. Journal of Food Quality. 34: 51-55.
  • Ou, Changrong., Du, X., Shellie, K. and Ross, C.F. and Qian, M.C.*  2010.  Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a Kaolin-based, Foliar reflectant particle film.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  58(24): 12890–12898.
  • Stone, D.A., Oliveira, A.C., Ross, C.F., Plante, S., Smiley, S. Bechtel, P and  Hardy, R.W.*  2011.  The effects of phase-feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with canola oil and Alaskan pollock fish oil on fillet fatty acid composition and sensory attributes.  Aquaculture Nutrition.  17(2): e521-529.
  • Reganold, J.P.*, Andrews, P.K., Reeves, J.R., Carpenter-Boggs, L., Schadt, C.W., Alldredge, J.R., Ross, C.F., Davies, N.M. and Zhou, J.  2010.  Fruit and soil quality of organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems.  PLoS One.  5 (9).
  • Sanborn, M.A.†, Edwards, C.G. and Ross, C.F.*  2010.  The impact of fining on the chemical and sensory properties of Washington State Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer wines.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture.  61: 31-41. 
  • Ross, C.F.*, Rosales, M. and Plotka, V.  2010.  Aroma profile of Niagara grape juice contaminated with Multi-Colored Asian Ladybeetle taint using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC/MS/O).  International Journal of Food Science and Technology.  45: 789-793.
  • Chauhan, J.M., Lim, S.Y., Powers, J.R., Ross, C.F. and Clark, S.* 2010.  Low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate.  Journal of Dairy Science.  93: 1452-1458.
  • Chauvin, M.†, Ross, C.F.*, Pitts, M., Kupferman, E. and Swanson, B.  2010.  Relationship between instrumental and sensory determination of apple and pear texture.  Journal of Food Quality.  33 (2): 181-198.
  • Weekes, L.N. †, Walsh, D., Ferguson, H. and Ross, C.F.*  2010.  Impact of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles on the sensory properties of Concord and Niagara grape juice.  Journal of Food Science.  75: S68-S73.
  • Ross, C.F.*, Chauvin, M.A. † and Whiting, M.  2010.  Assignation of sweet cherry selections to three taste groupings based on perceived sweetness and sourness.  Journal of Food Science.  75: S48-S54.
  • Ross, C.F.*, Weller, K.M., Blue, R.B. and Reganold, J.P.  2009.  Difference testing of Merlot produced from biodynamically and organically grown winegrapes.  Journal of Wine Research.  2: 85-94. 
  • Villamor, R. R., Harbertson, J.F. and Ross, C.F. *  2009.  Influence of tannin concentration, storage temperature and time on the chemical and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture.  60: 442-449.
  • Harbertson, J.F.*, Mireles, M., Harwood, E., Weller, K. and Ross, C.F.  2009.  Chemical and sensory effects of saignée, water addition and extended maceration on high brix must*.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture.  60: 442-449.
    ** Recipient of American Journal of Enology and Viticulture Best Enology Paper Award (2009)
  • Chauvin, M.A., Whiting, M.D. and Ross, C.F.*  2009.  The influence of harvest time on sensory properties and consumer acceptance of sweet cherries.  HortTechnology.  19: 748-754.
    **Top article read in the journal in October 2009
  • Ross, C.F.*, Chauvin, M.A. and Whiting, M.  2009.  Firmness evaluation of sweet cherries by a trained and consumer sensory panel.  Journal of Texture Studies.  40: 554-570.
  • Yang, N., McCluskey, J.* and Ross, C.F.  2009.  Willingness to pay for sensory properties in Washington State red wines.  Journal of Wine Economics.  4: 1-14.
  • Padiernos, C.A, Lim, S.Y., Swanson, B. G., Ross, C.F. and Clark, S.*  2009.  High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentration for use in lowfat whipping cream improves foaming properties.  Journal of Dairy Science.  92: 3049-3056.
  • Ross, C.F.* 2009.  Sensory science at the human-machine interface. Trends in Food Science and Technology.  20: 63-72.
  • Chauvin, M.A.†, Parks, C., Ross, C.F. and Swanson, B.G.*  2009.  Multidimensional representation of the standards scales of food texture.  Journal of Sensory Studies.  24: 93-110. 
  • Ross, C.F.* and Weller, K.  2008.  Development of a low-alcohol drink similar in sensory properties to a full-alcohol drink.  Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education.  52: 37-45.
  • Chauvin, M.†, Ross, C.F.*, Younce, F. and Swanson, B.  2008.  Standard scales for crispness, crackliness and crunchiness in dry and wet foods: Relationship with acoustical determination. Journal of Texture Studies.  39: 345-368.
  • Ross, C. F.*, Bohlscheid, J. and Weller, K.  2008.  Influence of visual masking technique on the assessment of two red wines by trained and consumer assessors.  Journal of Food Science.  73: S279-S285.
  • Ross, C.F.* and Weller, K.  Effect of serving temperature on sensory attributes of red and white wines.  2008.  Journal of Sensory Studies.  23: 398-416.
  • Landon, J.L.†, Weller, K., Harbertson, J. and Ross, C.F.*  2008.  Chemical and sensory evaluation of astringency in Washington State red wines.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 59: 153-158.
  • Harbertson, J.F.*, Hodgins, R.E., Thurston, L.M. Schaffer, L., Reid, M., Landon, J., Ross, C.F. and Adams, D.O.  2008.  Variability of tannin concentration in red wines.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture.  59: 210-214.
  • Nelson, M.L.*, Busboom, J.R., Ross, C.F. and Fallon, J.  2008.  Effects of supplemental fat on growth performance and quality of beef from steers fed corn finishing diets.  Journal of Animal Science.  86: 936-948.
  • Lim, S.Y., Swanson, B.G., Ross, C.F. and Clark, S.* 2008.  High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream.  Journal of Dairy Science.  91: 1308-1316.
  • Ross, C.F.* and Weller, K. 2007.  Sensory evaluation of suspected Harmonia axyridis-tainted red wine using untrained panelists.  Journal of Wine Research.  18: 187-193.
  • Bohlscheid, J., Specht,G., Ortiz-Julien,A., Maloney,J, Maloney,J, Gore,D., Ross,C.F. and Edwards, C.G.*  2007.  Application of a new yeast preparation for problem grape musts.  Journal of Wine Research.  18, 173-185.
  • Ross, C.F.*, Ferguson, H., Keller, M., Walsh, D., Weller, K. and Spayd, S.  2007.  Determination of ortho-nasal aroma threshold for multicolored Asian lady beetle in a concord grape juice.  Journal of Food Quality.  30: 855-863.
  • Ross, C.F.*, Hinken, C. and Weller, K.  2007.  Efficacy of palate cleansers for reduction of astringency carry-over during repeated ingestions of red wine. Journal of Sensory Studies.  22: 293-312.
  • Ross, C.F.*, Pecka, Kristin and Weller, Karen.  2006.  Effect of Storage Conditions on the Sensory Quality of Ground Coffee.  Journal of Food Quality.  29: 596-606.
  • Ross, C.F.* and Smith, D.M.  2006.  Use of volatiles as indicators of lipid oxidation in muscle foods. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.  5: 18-25.
  • Goodridge, C.F.*, Beaudry, R.M., Pestka, J.J. and Smith, D.M.  2003.  Solid-phase microextraction for the measurement of hexanal in chicken myofibrils.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  51: 4185-4190.
  • Goodridge, C.F.*, Goodridge, L., Gottfried, D., Edmonds, P. and Wyvill, C.  2003.  A rapid MPN-based ELISA for the detection of Salmonella typhimuirum in poultry waste water.  Journal of Food Protection.  66: 2302-2306.
  • Goodridge, C.F.*, Beaudry, R.M., Pestka, J.J. and Smith, D.M.  2003.  ELISA for monitoring lipid oxidation in chicken myofibrils through the quantification of hexanal-protein adducts.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  51: 7533-7539.
  • Forney, L.,* Goodridge, C.F., and Pierson, J.  2003.  Ultraviolet disinfection: Similitude in Taylor-Couette and channel flow.  Environmental Science and Technology.  37: 5015-5020.
  • Goodridge, L.D., Goodridge, C.F., Wu, J., Griffiths, M.W. and Pawliszyn, J.*  2003.  Isoelectric point determination of norovirus-like particles by capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection.  Analytical Chemistry.  76: 48-52.
  • Xiong, G., Goodridge, C.F., Wang, L., Chen, Y. and Pawliszyn, J.*  2003.  Microwave-assisted headspace solid phase microextraction for the analysis of bio-emissions from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  51: 7841-7847.

In-Press or Accepted:

  • Castro, L.M. and Ross, C.F.*  2012.  Removal of volatiles from beer by gas (N2) stripping coupled with high-vacuum.  Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists.

Book Chapters (Refereed):

  • Ross, C.F.  Headspace Analysis.  2011.  In Sampling and Sample Preparation.  Lord, H. and Pawliszyn, J., Eds.  Elsevier. 
  • Ross, C.F and Hoye, C.J.  Breakage and Mastication of Solid Foods.  2011.  In Food Oral Processing.  Chen, J. and Engeln, L., Eds.  London, Blackwell. 
  • Ross, C.F.  Physiology of Sensory Perception.  2008.  In The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products, Second Edition.  Clark, S., Drake, Costello, M. and Bodyfelt, C., Eds.  New York, NY, Springer. 
  • Ross, C.F. and Pawliszyn, J.  2005.  Solid-phase microextraction.  In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition.  Worsfold, P., Townshend, A. and Poole, C., Eds.  Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, Vol. 2, p. 608- 616.
  • Ross, C.F. and Carron, K.T.  2005.  Raman spectroscopy: Near-infrared.  In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition.  Worsfold, P., Townshend, A. and Poole, C., Eds.  Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, Vol. 8, p. 105-110.

* Senior and corresponding author
†  Graduate student supervised
‡  Goodridge is the former surname of Carolyn Ross


Teaching Experience

Current major advisor to 5 M.Sc. students and two Ph.D. students.  Courses taught:  Sensory Evaluation of Food and Wine, Introduction to Vines and Wines, Graduate Oral Seminar, Graduate Sensory Evaluation.

Professional Experience

American Chemical Society, American Society for Enology and Viticulture.  Cool Climate Meeting Planning Committee, Institute of Food Technologists and Secretary of IFT Lewis & Clark Section Sensometric Society, Assistant Editor: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment (JFAE)

School of Food Science, WSU - Pullman, WA, 509-335-3843 | UI - Moscow, ID, 208-885-0707 | Contact Us | Log in
© 2014 Washington State University | Accessibility | Policies | Copyright